How are photographs made?

“Does film contain gelatin?”

Unfortunately, we do not know of any film that is made without gelatin. Over the years, PETA has pressured film manufacturers to find a gelatin substitute, and while Kodak and Fuji have researched non-animal alternatives, they still claim that they cannot replace animal gelatin in film.”

February 2015


“Gelatin has been used in the production of photographic products for over 100 years.

The gelatin used in photographic products comes from the bones and hides of pigs and cattle. Gelatin is manufactured from the protein collagen. The exact manufacturing process used depends on the properties the gelatin needs to have. The hides or bones are soaked in an acidic or basic aqueous solution for a period of time ranging from hours to months followed by a gradual increase in temperature to extract the gelatin. The gelatin solution is then drained and washed. After the pH is adjusted, the gelatin is filtered, clarified, concentrated, and dried. In some cases the gelatin is chemically treated some more. The gelatin used by Eastman Kodak in its photographic products comes from a subsidiary company, Eastman Gelatine Company ( Eastman Gelatine produces gelatin for the imaging, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The gelatin produced for the imaging industry is the highest purity gelatin produced because of the sensitivity of the silver halide crystals to any chemical impurities.”


February 2015

direct link –

February 2015



Digital images converted to 35mm slides-

80 35mm slides projected from carousel slide projector-



Test Projection in Dodd Chair Studio


Selected images
“Gelatin” slide projection.
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