GELATIN : FILM : PHOTOGRAPHY

How are photographs made?

“Does film contain gelatin?”

Unfortunately, we do not know of any film that is made without gelatin. Over the years, PETA has pressured film manufacturers to find a gelatin substitute, and while Kodak and Fuji have researched non-animal alternatives, they still claim that they cannot replace animal gelatin in film.”

 http://www.peta.org/about-peta/faq/does-film-contain-gelatin/

February 2015

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“Gelatin has been used in the production of photographic products for over 100 years.

The gelatin used in photographic products comes from the bones and hides of pigs and cattle. Gelatin is manufactured from the protein collagen. The exact manufacturing process used depends on the properties the gelatin needs to have. The hides or bones are soaked in an acidic or basic aqueous solution for a period of time ranging from hours to months followed by a gradual increase in temperature to extract the gelatin. The gelatin solution is then drained and washed. After the pH is adjusted, the gelatin is filtered, clarified, concentrated, and dried. In some cases the gelatin is chemically treated some more. The gelatin used by Eastman Kodak in its photographic products comes from a subsidiary company, Eastman Gelatine Company (www.eastmangelatine.com). Eastman Gelatine produces gelatin for the imaging, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The gelatin produced for the imaging industry is the highest purity gelatin produced because of the sensitivity of the silver halide crystals to any chemical impurities.”

from- http://kodak.com

February 2015

direct link –http://motion.kodak.com/motion/Hub/Ae/octQA.htm#ixzz3RZxpFo7H

February 2015

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GELATIN SLIDE PROJECTION TEST

Digital images converted to 35mm slides-

80 35mm slides projected from carousel slide projector-

IMG_7808

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Test Projection in Dodd Chair Studio

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Selected images
“Gelatin” slide projection.
kill floor_1898_1
kill floor_1486
kill floor_0567
kill floor_0715_1

kill floor_0872
kill floor_1134
kill floor_1097_1kill floor_0861_1kill floor_0795_1 kill floor_0806

kill floor_0608_1_no red eye
kill floor_0742_1kill floor_0764

kill floor_1385
kill floor_1810kill floor_1742

kill floor_1492

kill floor_1650_1kill floor_1464kill floor_1380_1kill floor_1338kill floor_1266kill floor_1185_3 webkill floor_1505_1

kill floor_1099

Gelatin has been used in the production of photographic products for over 100 years

“Gelatin has been used in the production of photographic products for over 100 years.

The gelatin used in photographic products comes from the bones and hides of pigs and cattle. Gelatin is manufactured from the protein collagen. The exact manufacturing process used depends on the properties the gelatin needs to have. The hides or bones are soaked in an acidic or basic aqueous solution for a period of time ranging from hours to months followed by a gradual increase in temperature to extract the gelatin. The gelatin solution is then drained and washed. After the pH is adjusted, the gelatin is filtered, clarified, concentrated, and dried. In some cases the gelatin is chemically treated some more. The gelatin used by Eastman Kodak in its photographic products comes from a subsidiary company, Eastman Gelatine Company (www.eastmangelatine.com). Eastman Gelatine produces gelatin for the imaging, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The gelatin produced for the imaging industry is the highest purity gelatin produced because of the sensitivity of the silver halide crystals to any chemical impurities.”

from-  http://kodak.com

February 2015

direct link –http://motion.kodak.com/motion/Hub/Ae/octQA.htm#ixzz3RZxpFo7H

February 2015

ADOX COLLOIDA PURE PHOTO GRADE GELATIN, 250 GR

ADOX COLLOIDA pure photo grade gelatin, 250 gr

 

Apply this gelatine as a supercoating to various surfaces intended to be coated with liquid emulsion to prevent a waste of emulsion by soaking surfaces.
Also suitable for improoving the glazing on FB prints, or for alternative print processes where you make your own gelatine-emulsion.

Dissolve 40-80 gr of pure gelatine in 1 Liter of 40°C Celsius warm water.

Also suitable as precipitation gelatin to make your own light sensitive emulsions for films or papers.

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This fotogelatine has photo grade quality
We use the same quality photogelatine to produce our films and papers
This is why you cannot compare this gelatine to common household gelatine. Household gelatine must not be used in photographic processes

http://www.adox.de/english/ADOX_Papers/ADOX_Papers/Fotogelatin.html

WHAT TYPE OF GELATIN IS USED IN THE MANUFACTURE OF PHOTOGRAPHIC FILM? IS SYNTHETIC GELATIN USED?

Q: What type of gelatin is used in the manufacture of photographic film? Is synthetic gelatin used?

A: Gelatin is critical to photography, as we know it. Before gelatin came into use, photography was very difficult, time-consuming, and expensive because of the processes that had to be used. However, once gelatin became the medium in which the silver halide crystals were precipitated and the medium coated onto the glass or plastic support, photography became practical for use by the public. Gelatin, a naturally occurring polymer, is a long chain composed of a number of different amino acids. These chains interact with the silver ion and the silver halide crystal during crystal formation and growth so that the silver halide grains grow as individual grains and do not clump together. During the coating operation, the gelatin solution with the silver halide grains and any other photographic chemicals is gently warmed at which point it has a low viscosity and flows quite freely. However, immediately after coating, the material is cooled, actually only a modest drop in temperature, and the solution “gels” or forms a layer that does not flow. This allows the coating of photographic products at relatively high speed and the coating of many different layers on top of each other without mixing during the coating operation. At the time of coating hardeners are added to the solution so that after the coating step, the layers will become hard enough that they will not dissolve during the processing of the exposed film. Gelatin also has the property that the hardened gelatin layers will swell when wet and allow the processing chemicals into the layers so that the development reactions can occur, but the layer structure remains intact. Because no other synthetic materials have been found that have all of these properties, gelatin has been used in the production of photographic products for over 100 years.

The gelatin used in photographic products comes from the bones and hides of pigs and cattle. Gelatin is manufactured from the protein collagen. The exact manufacturing process used depends on the properties the gelatin needs to have. The hides or bones are soaked in an acidic or basic aqueous solution for a period of time ranging from hours to months followed by a gradual increase in temperature to extract the gelatin. The gelatin solution is then drained and washed. After the pH is adjusted, the gelatin is filtered, clarified, concentrated, and dried. In some cases the gelatin is chemically treated some more. The gelatin used by Eastman Kodak in its photographic products comes from a subsidiary company, Eastman Gelatine Company (www.eastmangelatine.com). Eastman Gelatine produces gelatin for the imaging, pharmaceutical, and food industries. The gelatin produced for the imaging industry is the highest purity gelatin produced because of the sensitivity of the silver halide crystals to any chemical impurities.

Read more:
http://motion.kodak.com/motion/Hub/Ae/octQA.htm

GELATIN-SILVER PRINT

Gelatin-Silver Print

The gelatin silver process uses gelatin, an animal protein, as the binder and developed silver as the image material. The most common black and white print process, introduced in 1885 and still in use today.

http://www.photoeye.com/GALLERY/Definitions.cfm#Gelatin-SilverPrint

DOES FILM CONTAIN GELATIN?

Unfortunately, we do not know of any film that is made without gelatin. Over the years, PETA has pressured film manufacturers to find a gelatin substitute, and while Kodak and Fuji have researched non-animal alternatives, they still claim that they cannot replace animal gelatin in film.

However, both of these companies and many others now offer digital cameras, which capture images on a disk and print them through a computer without the use of film.

Today, PETA primarily uses digital cameras and images. Our members, others who send us photos, and agencies like the Associated Press—from which we sometimes purchase photos—also use mostly digital cameras. In the past, however, there was little choice, and we made the decision to use film—with the knowledge that it contained gelatin—to document cruelty (e.g., in the case of the Silver Springs monkeys) and to educate people. It was an imperfect decision, but we felt that, ultimately, taking photos with film served the greater good by bringing the plight of animals into the public eye.

PETA does not actively campaign against watching movies or taking photographs for pleasure, but we do encourage you to write to film manufacturers and movie studios about your concerns and encourage them to implement alternatives to gelatin.

In recent years, the movie industry appears to be undergoing a revolutionary change toward digital filming. The new Star Wars movies, for example, were shot digitally. If theaters follow suit by switching to digital systems, movies of the future may no longer need to be transferred to film at all.

We believe that animals are not here for human use, and we promote a vegan lifestyle. We also recognize that, unfortunately, it is impossible to be entirely vegan. Although changes are taking place with almost everything, there are animal products and/or animal tests wrapped up in everything from our wallboard, paints, and car tires to the asphalt we drive on.

Ultimately, we encourage people to make choices that will have the most positive impact for animals.

http://www.peta.org/about-peta/faq/does-film-contain-gelatin/

February 28, 2015

PHOTOGRAPHIC GELATINS

The use of gelatin in photographic emulsions dates back to about 1870 when Dr. Maddox of England replaced the collodion wet process with a gelatin emulsion which could be dried and was not required to be used immediately. Gelatin emulsions have, through the years, been continually improved in quality and speed. Gelatin is still the best medium known for making photographic emulsions (68-71).

Gelatin for photographic use is primarily Type B alkaline processed gelatin, especially for emulsion preparation. Type A gelatin has limited application for top coating and subbing. Although cattle hides have been used, Type B photographic gelatin is generally made from ossein derived from bone. Preparation and extraction of the raw materials are done under carefully controlled
conditions to produce gelatin with desired photographic properties, such as varying degrees of sensitivity or inertness with minimal fogging properties.

Gelatin serves several functions in the preparation of the silver emulsions. It acts as a protective colloid during the precipitation of the silver halides; it is an important factor in controlling the size of the silver halide grains; and it protects the halide grains in the reducing action of the developer so that the reduction of these grains to metallic silver is in proportion to their exposure to light.

Formulas for photographic emulsions and procedures for their preparation can be found in the literature and patents. First, the emulsifying gelatin is dissolved in water and a solution of the required halide salts is added. Next a solution of silver nitrate is carefully added at a specified rate and with constant agitation. The mixture is then heated at a predetermined temperature up to 50°C for a set time. The salts are removed by decantation and washing after the gelatin containing silver halide is precipitated by coagulation. More gelatin and water are added to reconstitute to a proper consistency before chemical sensitization. Variations of the basic process to control silver halide crystal size distribution and size include processes to control nucleation and halide concentration during precipitation.

A final ripening and sensitization then takes place by heating to 50°C or above to reach the maximum or desired sensitivity. This procedure is used for the so-called boiled emulsion.
An ammonia emulsion is prepared similarly, but with the addition of ammonia in the early blending, and the use of lower ripening temperatures.

The emulsion is now ready to be coated on the desired batching film, paper or metal.

Gelatin itself contains natural ingredients which, though present in minute amounts, act as sensitizers in an emulsion. Other substances present naturally act as restrainers: they play an important role in emulsion preparation to offset reactions which cause fog.

Gelatin Manufacturers Institute of America

http://www.gelatin-gmia.com/images/GMIA_Gelatin_Manual_2012.pdf